Účetní výrazy v angličtině – Přechodné účty

Zaúčtování přijatých a odeslaných faktur na přelomu účetních období patří do vyšší dívčí účetních. V tomto článku se seznámíte s výrazy, které se pro účtování na přechodných účtech používají v angličtině.

Accruals and deferrals

The cash basis and the accrual basis are two methods of accounting. A company that uses the cash basis records money when it actually comes and goes out of the business. This method might suit smaller businesses because, at the end of the tax year, they do not have to pay income tax on money they did not receive. The cash basis would not suit a company which is VAT registered, runs a more complex business and / or has higher levels of stock.

The accrual basis is considered to be traditional and it is the standard practice for most companies. This method provides a more accurate picture of the company’s current condition. Economic events are recognized regardless of when cash transactions occur. Using the accrual basis of accounting, the company records income and expenses when it invoices customers or receives a bill. 

An accrual is a way of recording an expense before processing the supplier´s invoice. Accruals are not always accurate. The journal entry will include the accounts to be credited or debited and a brief description of the expenses. The credit side of the journal entry may be left blank. 

A deferral is an instrument of delaying the recording of an expense to a future accounting period. An expense has already been recorded, but that expenditure (or a part of it) should be recorded as an expense in the next fiscal year. Or a revenue has been recorded, but has not yet been earned. 

Accrued Revenue = revenue is recognized before cash is received; for example a company delivers goods or provides services to a customer who will pay later, and the payment will arrive in the next accounting period (next fiscal year). 

Accrued Expense = expense is recognized before cash is paid; it is a pending obligation to pay for goods or services. 

Deferred Revenue (or Income) = revenue is recognized after cash is received; this deferred income is a liability, i.e. cash received for goods or services that will be delivered in a later accounting period (next fiscal year). 

Deferred Expense = expense is recognized after cash is paid; also called prepaid expense or prepayment, it is an asset representing cash paid out for goods or services to be received in a later accounting period (next fiscal year).

 

Slovníček anglických účetních výrazů:

  • the cash basis = metoda účetnictví, kdy se výnos uznává po přijetí peněz
  • VAT registered = plátce DPH
  • stock = zde: zásoby
  • the accrual basis = metoda účetnictví, kdy se jako výnos uznává odeslání faktury
  • invoice = faktura, vystavit fakturu
  • accrual = účetní zaznamenání výnosů či výdajů (viz. text)
  • journal entry = záznam v účetním deníku
  • deferral = účetní proces týkající se přechodných účtů (viz. text)
  • expense = výdaj (také náklad)
  • accounting period = účetní období
  • expenditure = výdaj, platba za nakoupené zboží či služby
  • revenue = výnos z činnosti podniku
  • accrued revenue(s) = příjmy příštích období (385)
  • accrued expense(s) = výdaje příštích období (383)
  • deferred revenue(s) = výnosy příštích období (384)
  • liability = závazek, pasivum
  • deferred expense(s) = náklady příštích období (381)
  • prepayment = platba dopředu (náklad příštích období)
  • asset = aktivum