Účetní pojmy v angličtině – Účetní uzávěrka

Potrénujte účetní výrazy v angličtině. Úkony, které provádějí účetní v anglicky mluvících zemích na konci účetního období, jsou v podstatě stejné jako u nás, takže následující text vám, doufám, poslouží především k rozšíření slovní zásoby.

Year End Procedure

A fiscal year (financial year or sometimes budget year) is a period used for calculating annual financial statements in businesses and other organizations.

In many countries, laws regarding accounting and taxation require such reports once per twelve months, but do not require that the period reported on constitutes a calendar year (1st January to 31st December). The reason that a company’s fiscal year often differs from the calendar year is due to the nature of a company’s needs. For example, retailers tend to close their books at the end of January as they have a large number of sales in December.

Some companies choose to end their fiscal year on the same day of the week, such day being the one closest to a particular date (for example, the Friday closest to 31 December). Under such a system, some fiscal years will have 52 weeks and others 53 weeks.

The fiscal year for individuals who report and pay income taxes is often known as the taxpayer’s year or taxable year. Most countries require all individuals to pay income tax based on the calendar year. In Australia, the fiscal year starts on 1st July and ends on 30th June. For personal income tax after the financial year ends, individuals have until 31st October to lodge their return (unless they use a tax agent).

In the United Kingdom, the financial year runs from 1st April to 31st March for the purposes of corporation tax and government financial statements. For the self-employed and other who pay personal tax the fiscal year starts on 6th April and ends on 5th April of the next calendar year. This is due to Britain historically having a calendar year starting on 25 March in the Julian calendar, which translates to 6 April in the Gregorian calendar.

At the end of the financial year there are reporting obligations which are common to all businesses. You need to ensure all transactions are recorded. This includes sales, purchases, payments, receipts and employee pays. If you have inventory, you need to do a stock take (inventory check). This requires you to manually count your on-hand stock and, if necessary, make adjustments to item quantities if they are different from your records. You should also reconcile your bank and credit card accounts. This will ensure that your records match your bank’s records.

Accountants and bookkeepers prepare financial statements to provide users with an idea of a company´s financial position, its economic performance and its changes in assets, liabilities and net worth (equity). The auditors will be looking for these reports: a balance sheet (a statement of financial position), a profit and loss account (P&L statement or an income statement) and a cash flow statement (a statement of cash flows).

Slovníček pojmů:

  • fiscal year = fiskální (finanční) rok
  • financial statements = finanční výkazy
  • taxation = zdanění, daňový system
  • close the books = uzavřít knihy
  • income tax = daň z příjmu
  • taxpayer = daňový poplatník
  • to lodge the tax return = podat daňové přiznání
  • corporation tax = daň (z příjmu) právnických osob
  • a self-employed person = OSVČ
  • stock take = inventura
  • make adjustments = provést úpravy
  • reconcile = uvést v soulad
  • accountant = účetní (znalec)
  • bookkeeper = účetní (který provádí běžné záznamy)
  • economic performance = výkon(nost)
  • assets = aktiva
  • liabilities = pasiva, závazky
  • equity = čisté jmění
  • balance sheet = rozvaha
  • profit and loss account = výsledovka, výkaz zisků a ztrát
  • cash flow statement = výkaz toku hotovosti